Trial document




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  DRKS00009421

Trial Description

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Title

Measuring the motivational influences of reward on human motor behaviour

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Trial Acronym

MIRHMB

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URL of the Trial

[---]*

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Brief Summary in Lay Language

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of reward (i.e. money) and
reward predicting cues (i.e. advertisements) on human motor behaviour (i.e. walk
to a shop and buy something). Furthermore, we want to know, which brain regions
and what particular brain activity is involved in such processes by means of
different neuroscientific methods (electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI), transcranial current stimulation (TCS) and pupillometry
(PM) / eye tracking (ET)).

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Brief Summary in Scientific Language

Goal directed behaviour of animals and humans is the subject of a continuous
cost-benefit analysis weighing expected rewards gained by an action against the
associated costs (de Wit & Dickinson, 2009). The outcome of an action can
either be positive/appetitive, i.e. rewarding, or negative/aversive, i.e. punishing
(Estes & Skinner, 1941; Balleine & Dickinson, 1998; Kelley & Berridge, 2002),
with costs usually equal to the perceived effort of an action. Several studies have
demonstrated that motor effort is balanced against expected rewards (Hull,
1943; Walton et al., 2006; Salamone et al., 2007; Kool et al., 2010; Rangel &
Hare, 2010). Thus, if the expected reward is considered very desirable (i.e. the
subjective reward value is high), participants are willing to put more effort into a
goal-directed action to earn the reward.
Importantly, goal-directed behaviour is not only influenced by the direct
availability of rewards, but also the presence of Pavlovian-conditioned cues that
indirectly indicate reward availability (Lawrence et al., 2012; Colagiuri &
Lovibond, 2014; Robinson et al., 2014; Watson et al., 2014). For example,
seeing the logo of a fast food chain (Pavlovian-conditioned cue) can boost the
craving for an energy-dense snack (expected reward) so much so that one
would take action in response to this craving (goal-directed behaviour) even
when not hungry.
One possible process underlying this type of behaviour is Pavlovian to
instrumental transfer (PIT), which is an interaction between two associative
learning processes (Rescorla & Solomon, 1967; Holmes et al., 2010).
Instrumental conditioning consists of active goal-directed behaviour that is
rewarded with high probability (Rescorla & Solomon, 1967; Everitt & Robbins,
2005; Holmes et al., 2010) leading to a response-outcome contingency. During
Pavlovian conditioning an association between a stimulus (i.e. tone, picture) and
an outcome (i.e. money, food or social reward) is learned (Rescorla & Solomon,
1967; Holmes et al., 2010) and thus, a stimulus-outcome contingency is formed.
During the PIT test it can be observed that the Pavlovian-conditioned cue
(stimulus) elicits an increase in goal-directed behaviour (response) even though
a direct association has never been established (Estes, 1943; 1948; Rescorla &
Solomon, 1967; Everitt & Robbins, 2005; Holmes et al., 2010; Watson et al., 2014).
In this research project, we aim to gain further insights into the neurobiological
basis of how rewards or Pavlovian-conditioned cues of reward interact with
motor effort.

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Organizational Data

  •   DRKS00009421
  •   2015/09/25
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  •   yes
  •   Approved
  •   KEK-ZH-Nr 2014-0562, Kantonale Ethikkommission Zürich
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Secondary IDs

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Health Condition or Problem studied

  •   Basic science with healthy participants.
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Interventions/Observational Groups

  •   The main goal of this research project is to investigate the motivational influence of rewards and reward predicting cues on human motor behaviour and identify neurophysiological markers for these processes using EEG and/or MRI and/or PM/ET.
    In a first step we aim to modulate the motivation to perform goal-directed actions by means of subliminal or conscious visual, auditory or sensory stimuli associated with rewards.
    In a second step we will investigate if reward representations in the brain can be measured with EEG.
    In a third step we will combine several neuroscientific methods (EEG, MRI PM/ET, TCS) with the behavioural experiment to investigate how goal-directed behaviour can be influenced by different cues. The motivation to perform goal-directed actions might also be increased by
    applying TCS at a specific frequency which is associated with reward. This is based on a novel
    technique called (EEG) frequency tagging, which will be developed within this research project.
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Characteristics

  •   Interventional
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  •   Single arm study
  •   Open (masking not used)
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  •   Uncontrolled/Single arm
  •   Basic research/physiological study
  •   Single (group)
  •   N/A
  •   N/A
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Primary Outcome

Behavioural performance (as reaction time, force production, accuracy of movement, scores)
Neurophysiological markers (brain activity, oscillations, pupil size, eye movements)

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Secondary Outcome

None

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Countries of Recruitment

  •   Switzerland
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Locations of Recruitment

  • other 
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Recruitment

  •   Planned
  •   2015/10/01
  •   540
  •   Monocenter trial
  •   National
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Inclusion Criteria

  •   Both, male and female
  •   18   Years
  •   50   Years
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Additional Inclusion Criteria

-Healthy, male and female participants
-Age 18-50
-Normal physical and mental health

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Exclusion Criteria

-Known history of neurological, musculoskeletal or psychiatric disorders
-Pregnancy (contraindication for MRI scans)
-Metal implants in their body (contraindication for MRI scans)
-Claustrophobia (contraindication for MRI scans)

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Addresses

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    • Neural Control of Movenment LabEidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
    • Ms.  Prof.  Nicole  Wenderoth 
    • Winterthurerstrasse 190
    • 8057  Zürich
    • Switzerland
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    • Neural Control of Movement LabEidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
    • Ms.  Prof.  Nicole  Wenderoth 
    • Winterthurerstrasse 190
    • 8057  Zürich
    • Switzerland
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    • Neural Control of Movement LabEidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
    • Ms.  Prof.  Nicole  Wenderoth 
    • Winterthurerstrasse 190
    • 8057  Zürich
    • Switzerland
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Sources of Monetary or Material Support

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    • Neural Control of Movement LabEidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
    • Ms.  Prof.  Nicole  Wenderoth 
    • Winterthurerstrasse 190
    • 8057  Zürich
    • Switzerland
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Status

  •   Recruiting planned
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Trial Publications, Results and other Documents

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* This entry means the parameter is not applicable or has not been set.